Each of these defensive structures was surrounded by a large ditch, all connected by a line of entrenchments and a total of 36 cannons (mostly 18-pounders).In addition to these new forts, a mounted battery was established on Governors Island, cannons were placed at Fort George facing Bowling Green, and more cannons placed at the Whitehall Dock, which sat on the East River.He reasoned that the defenses should be located with the ability to inflict heavy casualties upon the British if any move was made to take and hold ground. Map by Bernard Ratzer based on his 1766-1767 survey.American strategy called for the first line of defense to be based on the Heights of Guan, a series of hills which stretched northeast across King's County. and there were several thousand of them there in a short time.Washington and the Continental Army were driven out of New York entirely after several more defeats and forced to retreat through New Jersey and into Pennsylvania.and established headquarters at the former home of Archibald Kennedy on Broadway facing Bowling Green.
Colonel Edward Hand's Pennsylvanian riflemen had been stationed on the shore, but they did not oppose the landings and fell back, killing cattle and burning farmhouses on the way.
Faced with this large force, Washington was unsure as to where the British would attack.
Both Greene and Reed thought that the British would attack Long Island, but Washington felt that a British attack on Long Island might be a diversion for the main attack on Manhattan.
On Tuesday, July 9, at , Washington had several brigades march onto the commons of the city to hear the Declaration of Independence read.
After the end of the reading, a mob ran down to Bowling Green with ropes and bars, where they tore down the gilded lead equestrian statue of George III of Great Britain.
In early June, Knox and Greene inspected the land at the north end of Manhattan and decided to establish Fort Washington.